This first inklings of this video essay came in the form of a one-off blog post I wrote seven years ago (Tohline 2013) in response to Miklos Kiss’s work on the “narrative” supercut (Kiss 2013). My thoughts then comprised little more than a list; an attempt to add a few works to the prehistory of the supercut that I felt Kiss and other supercut researchers or popularizers, like Tom McCormack (2011) and Andy Baio (2008), had left out. As time went by and the aesthetic of assembling appropriated footage into a matching list of clips spread far beyond fan montages on YouTube, I felt it was time to return to the history of the supercut, try to fill in the gaps of the existing work on it, and account for the social meaning behind its proliferation. And that’s how this video essay began: with a hunch that a fad had somehow become ideological. As I performed over a year of image-research and encountered quite a few more cultural tributaries of the supercut in places I had not expected, it became clear that the supercut was never just a subset of remix, compilation, or fan culture, but was instead a material expression of a new historical mode of knowledge and power: the database episteme. The supercut was not invented within the avant-garde, later making its way into more populist forms of entertainment; rather, the roots of the form appeared simultaneously in many places at once. This phenomenon of multiple-emergence is most evident in the 1920s, where montages that first resemble what would later be called supercuts pop up in newsreels, sight gags in silent comedies, city symphonies, agit-prop documentary, German cross-section montages, mainstream narratives, and more (see, for example, The Cruise of the Jasper B. (1926), Rien que les heures (1926), Turksib (1929), Melody of the World (1929), or The Crowd (1928)). Despite the fact that the supercut embodies database-thinking, or at least a kind of simulation of a computer search operation, up to this point our histories of the supercut have been primarily archival, focusing on a few favored works and creators while not noticing the bulk of the tradition. This project thus primarily represents an attempt to bring a more rounded database-approach to the histories of the supercut, a database-form.
Structurally, this essay breaks up into three parts. Part one analyses the aesthetics of the supercut in terms of what kind of attention the form naturally emphasizes or intensifies. Drawing on Tim Smith’s Attentional Theory of Cinematic Continuity (Smith 2012) and Eli Horwatt’s work on “Instrumental Appropriation” in photocollage (Horwatt 2013), I argue that there is no semiotic or structuralist reason why viewers should prefer narrative patterning to database patterning of images. In fact, just as the conventions of classical continuity editing direct spectatorial attention toward elements of the unfolding narrative and away from extraneous details, so also the strong patterning in supercuts focuses viewer attention toward that which repeats, stoking uncritical desire for that repetition, regardless of the content of the images. While critical analysis is certainly possible within the form, the supercut, broadly speaking, naturally gravitates toward desire instead of analysis.
Armed with this conclusion, part two sets out to discover the various roots of the supercut with this desire-centered-ness, and other pragmatics, as a guide. Deploying over a hundred video clips, I show how existing histories of the supercut, which tend to center on avant-garde filmmaking or fan cultures, both fail to mention a great deal of relevant works and, in some cases, greatly misunderstand the nature of the form. To correct these errors, I produce an original genealogy of the various tributaries of the moving image that feed into the modern supercut, including: the cinephilic thread, which stretches from Cinema Paradiso (1988) and That’s Entertainment (1974) back to German and American film history montages of the 1920s; the cross-section thread, which begins with Walter Ruttmann’s querschnitt montages of the 1920s and extends through the avant-garde work of later found footage filmmakers; the archival-analysis thread, with its roots in Shub and Eisenstein, that blossoms in the visual culture work of Berger, Loader & the Raffertys, and others; and the narrative thread, emerging in Vorkapich-style montages of the 1920s and 30s and continuing in later attempts to compress serial narrative events or express a character’s essayistic thoughts.
With these various cultural series of the supercut in place, part three theorizes the histories of the supercut as a tale of the emergence of the database episteme. Over the past century, we have come to think of nearly every aspect of our lives as composed of data. The supercut is part of this; indeed, every time we use a search engine, we commission a computer to make us something quite like a supercut. Thus, the supercut entails not simply a mode of editing, but a mode of thinking expressed by a mode of editing. Accordingly, in part three I argue for the supercut as an example of what happens when an episteme takes root ideologically well before the technologies corresponding to the world it envisions have been invented. Just as capitalism treated workers as machines as a prelude to workers being replaced by machines, so also supercutters simulate database thinking in apparent anticipation of a moment, perhaps in the near future, when neural networks will be able to search the entirety of digitized film history and create supercuts themselves, automatically. In its desire-centered aesthetics and its often-evidentiary uses, the supercut carries many of the promises and threats of the database episteme. But like any technology, the supercut’s threats need not outweigh its promises. In my conclusion, I imagine decoupling database-thinking from its service to capitalist systems of control and argue that now is the time to imagine what this liberation of the database episteme could look like, both in the supercut and across culture more broadly.
The author has no competing interests to declare.
Baio, A. 2008. Fanboy Supercuts, Obsessive Video Montages, 11 April 2008. Available at https://waxy.org/2008/04/fanboy_supercuts_obsessive_video_montages/ [Accessed 3 December 2020].
Bateman, J. 2007. Towards a grande paradigmatique of film: Christian Metz reloaded. Semiotica, 2007(167): 13–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/SEM.2007.070
Benjamin, W. 1936. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility. In: Jennings, M, Doherty, B and Levin, T (eds.), The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility, and Other Writings on Media, trans. E Jephcott, R Livingstone, H Eiland, et al. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Berliner, A. n.d. The Family Album, viewed 13 December 2020, http://www.alanberliner.com/first_cousin.php?pag_id=37.
Bordwell, D, Staiger, J and Thompson, K. 1985. The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Style and Mode of Production to 1960. London: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1772109
Coppa, F. 2014. Interview with Kandy Fong. In Rehak, B (ed.) Materiality and Object-Oriented Fandom, special issue of Transformative Works and Cultures, (16). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2014.0535
Cowan, M. 2013. Cutting through the Archive: Querschnitt Montage and Images of the World in Weimar Visual Culture. New German Critique, 40(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/0094033X-2325410
Deleuze, G. 1986. Cinema 1: the movement-image, trans. H. Tomlinson & B. Hammerjam. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 36–37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350251977
Farhi, P. 2012. A local TV trend: And now, the identical news. The Washington Post, 27 November 2012. Available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/a-local-tv-trend-and-now-the-identical-news/2012/11/27/9369a308-38bd-11e2-8a97-363b0f9a0ab3_story.html [Accessed 24 December 2020].
Gallagher, O. 2012. Remix Semiosis as Ideology Critique: A Visual Semiotic Study of Critical Remix Video. Gramma: Journal of Theory and Criticism, 20: 127–144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26262/gramma.v20i0.6298
Hagener, M. 2007. Moving Forward, Looking Back: The European Avant-garde and the Invention of Film Culture, 1919–1939. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5117/9789053569610
Horwatt, E. 2013. On The Clock and Christian Marclay’s Instrumental Logic of Appropriation. Framework, 54(2): 208–225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13110/framework.54.2.0208
Jacobs, S, Kinik, A and Hielscher, E. 2019. The City Symphony Phenomenon: Cinema, Art, and Urban Modernity Between the Wars. New York: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315619989
Kastrenakes, J. 2019. Fox News stops TV recording services that let journalists search for clips. The Verge, 21 January 2019. Available at https://www.theverge.com/2019/1/21/18191652/fox-news-tveyes-settlement-tv-recording-monitoring-service-fair-use [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Kiss, M. 2013. Creativity Beyond Originality: György Pálfi’s Final Cut as Narrative Supercut. Senses of Cinema 67. Available at: http://www.sensesofcinema.com/2013/feature-articles/creativity-beyond-originality-gyorgy-palfis-final-cut-as-narrative-supercut/ [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Lopez, A, et al. 1997. The Tree of Life: Universal and Cultural Features of Folkbiological Taxonomies and Inductions. Cognitive Psychology, 32: 251–295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1997.0651
MacDonald, S. 1988. A Critical Cinema: Interviews with Independent Filmmakers. Berkeley: University of California Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520939080
McCormack, T. 2011. Compilation Nation: The history and the rise of the supercut. Museum of the Moving Image: Moving Image Source, 25 April 2011. Available at http://www.movingimagesource.us/articles/compilation-nation-20110425 [Accessed 24 December 2020].
Metz, C. 1966. La grande syntagmatique du film narratif. Communications, 8(1): 120–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/comm.1966.1119
Miller, B [he4ts3eker]. 2016. We Love Video: The Evolution of the Supercut, 18 July 2016. Available at https://brenkjm.wordpress.com/2016/07/18/the-evolution-of-the-supercut/ [Accessed 22 July 2019].
Mozur, P. 2018. Inside China’s Dystopian Dreams: A.I., Shame and Lots of Cameras. The New York Times, 8 July 2018. Available at https://nytimes.com/2018/07/08/business/china-surveillance-technology.html [Accessed 24 December 2020].
Murray, B. 2015. Remixing Culture And Why The Art Of The Mash-Up Matters, 22 March 2015. Available at https://techcrunch.com/2015/03/22/from-artistic-to-technological-mash-up/ [Accessed 4 December 2020].
PBS. n.d. POV: The Family Album, viewed 13 December 2020, https://www.pbs.org/pov/thefamilyalbum/.
Russell, C. 2018. Archiveology: Walter Benjamin and Archival Film Practices. Durham: Duke University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822372004
Sadowski, J. 2018. Potemkin AI. Real Life Mag, 6 Aug. 2018. Available at: https://reallifemag.com/potemkin-ai/ [Accessed 9 December 2020].
Smith, T. 2012. The Attentional Theory of Cinematic Continuity. Projections, 6(1): 1–27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3167/proj.2012.060102
Tohline, M. 2013. Why Not a Supercut of Supercuts? (Tumblr post), 7 December, https://10oclockdot.tumblr.com/post/69270352197/.
Whitman, W. 1855. There Was a Child Went Forth. In: Whitman, W (ed.), 1871 Leaves of Grass. New York: Smith & McDougal. Available at https://whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1871/poems/113 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Yumibe, J. 2013. French Film Colorists. In: Gaines, J, Vatsal, R and Dall’Asta, M (eds.), Women Film Pioneers Project. New York: Columbia University Libraries. Available at: https://wfpp.columbia.edu/essay/french-film-colorists/ [Accessed on 23 December 2020].
Zalewski, D. 2012. The Hours: How Christian Marclay created the ultimate digital mosaic. The New Yorker, March 4, 2012. Online: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/03/12/the-hours-daniel-zalewski [Accessed 12 December 2020].
Fahrenheit 9/11, 2004. [DVD] Michael Moore. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/flm.2005.0029
Spike Lee – The Dolly Shot (Video Essay), 2012. [Web video] Richard Cruz. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1687-5281-2012-7
Cloister of Saint-Trophime, Arles, 1851. [Partly hand-painted paper print composited from 10 separate negatives] Edouard Baldus. (with diagram of compositing lines from Marien, M W 2006 Photography: A Cultural History, 2nd Ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 58.)
‘abc world news tonight 1975,’ 2020, YouTube, search result, viewed 23 June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=abc+world+news+tonight+1975.
Amazon Mechanical Turk 2020, Homepage, viewed 14 July 2020, https://www.mturk.com/.
Ansyari, I, n.d. World National Flags of Countries. Available at https://www.dreamstime.com/collection-set-illustrator-vector-flags-world-their-names-isolated-white-background-world-national-flags-image139636937 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
‘Automatic number-plate recognition,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_number-plate_recognition.
Avgerinakis, K, Moumtzidou, A, Galanopoulos, D, Orfanidis, G, Andreadis, S, Markatopoulou, F, Batziou, E, Ioannidis, K, Vrochidis, S, Mezaris, V, & Kompatsiaris, I 2018 ITI-CERTH participation in TRECVID 2018. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.papers/iti_certh.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Awad, G, Fiscus, J, Joy, D, Michel, M, Smeaton, A, et al 2017 TRECVID 2016: Evaluating video search, video event detection, localization, and hyperlinking, paper presented at TRECVID, November 2016. Available at: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01854776/document [Accessed 24 December 2020].
Bansal, R, & Chakraborty, S 2019 Visual content based video retrieval on natural language queries, paper presented at the 34th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing, April 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3297280.3297303
Barthel, K U, Hezel, N, & Mackowiak, R 2015 Graph-based browsing for large video collections. Paper presented at International Conference on Multimedia Modeling. Springer, Cham, 2015. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-14442-9_21 [Accessed 24 December 2020]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14442-9_21
BBC 2020 Class to remove ‘sexist’ dictionary definitions for ‘woman’. BBC 4 March 2020. Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-oxfordshire-51738824 [Accessed 7 December 2020].
Bonte, A 2002 Happy End für eine Filmbibliothek? Die Filmbibliothek Kalbus in der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg. In: Theke. Informationsblatt der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter im Bibliothekssystem, (2002), pp. 27–32.
‘Cell site,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_site.
Chen, J, Huang, P, Liu, J, Liang, J, Hu, T, Ke, W, Barrios, W, Vaibhav, V, Chang, X, Huang, D, & Hauptmann, A 2018 Informedia @ TRECVID 2018: Ad-hoc Video Search, Video to Text Description, Activities in Extended video. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.papers/inf.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
‘Closed-circuit television,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television.
Cushing, E 2013 Amazon Mechanical Turk: The Digital Sweatshop. Utne Reader, Jan/Feb 2013. Available at: https://www.utne.com/science-and-technology/amazon-mechanical-turk-zm0z13jfzlin [Accessed 14 July 2020].
Databank Data Centers, Bluffdale, UT, to National Archives Museum in Washington, D.C., 2020, Google Maps, route overview, 8 July 2020, https://www.google.com/maps/dir/DataBank+Data+Centers,+14944+Pony+Express+Rd,+Bluffdale,+UT+84065/National+Archives+Museum,+Constitution+Avenue+Northwest,+Washington,+DCemail@example.com,-111.980213,11z/data=!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x8752811fcae8732d:0x89e857ad71f15c70!2m2!1d-111.904533!2d40.480032!1m5!1m1!1s0x89b7b79adcbc14d1:0x17b51a59f16166f1!2m2!1d-77.022939!2d38.892559!3e0.
de Oliveira Barra, G, Lux, M, & and Giro-i-Nieto, X. 2016 Large scale content-based video retrieval with LIvRE. Paper presented at the 14th International Workshop on Content-Based Multimedia Indexing (CBMI). IEEE, June 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CBMI.2016.7500266
Dürer, A 1538 Underweysung der Messung, 2nd ed., Nuremberg. Available at https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/336657 [Accessed 24 December 2020].
‘Dylan Marron,’ 2020, YouTube, channel page, viewed 9 June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/user/dylanmarron/videos.
‘every f word,’ 2019, YouTube, search result, viewed 6 January 2019, https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=every+f+word.
‘E-ZPass,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-ZPass.
E-ZPass New York Service Center 2020 E-ZPass Info: Plans, viewed 12 July 2020, https://www.e-zpassny.com/en/about/plans.shtml.
E-ZPass New York Service Center 2020 E-ZPass Quick Guide, viewed 12 July 2020, https://www.e-zpassny.com/en/about/i_guide.pdf.
Francis, D, Huet, B, & Merialdo, B 2018 EURECOM participation in TrecVid VTT 2018. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.papers/eurecom.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Gebauer, L; Kringelbach, M L; and Vuust, P 2012 Ever-Changing Cycles of Musical Pleasure: The Role of Dopamine and Anticipation. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 22(2): 152–167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031126
‘Global Positioning System,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System.
Google 2020 Homepage, various search queries, viewed 14 July 2020, https://www.google.com/.
Haberman, M 2018, Twitter update, 1 April, viewed 3 April 2018, https://twitter.com/maggienyt/status/980600512256110598?lang=en.
‘Henny Porten – Leben und Laufbahn einer Filmkünstlerin,’ 2020, IMDb, title entry, viewed 23 June 2020, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1348972.
Hong, S, Im, W, & Yang, H 2018 CBVMR: content-based video-music retrieval using soft intra-modal structure constraint. Paper presented at the 2018 ACM on International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval, June 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3206025.3206046
Iqbal, S, Qureshi, A, & Lodhi, A 2018 Content Based Video Retrieval Using Convolutional Neural Network. In: Arai, K, Kapoor, S, & Bhatia, R (eds) Intelligent Systems and Applications. IntelliSys 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 868. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01054-6_12
‘jay leyda films beget films,’ 2020, Missouri S&T’s Curtis Laws Wilson Library, online search result, viewed 23 June 2020, http://merlin.lib.umsystem.edu/search~S5/?searchtype=Y&searchscope =5&searcharg=jay+leyda+films+beget+films.
Jiang, L, Yu, S, Meng, D, Yang, Y, Mitamura, T, & Hauptmann, A 2015 Fast and accurate content-based semantic search in 100m internet videos, paper presented at the 23rd ACM international conference on Multimedia, October 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2733373.2806237
Jin, Y, Kwak, J, Lee, Y, Yun, J, & Ko, H 2018 KU-ISPL TRECVID 2018 VTT Model. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.slides/ku_ispl.vtt.slides.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Keaton, B 1924 production still from Sherlock, Jr. In: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 2012, Inside the Booth – A Journey Through Projection. Available at: https://www.oscars.org/videos-photos/inside-booth-journey-through-projection [Accessed on 22 December 2020].
Kircher, A 1671 Illustration of Magic Lantern. In: Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae, p. 768. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_lantern#/media/File:Optic_Projection_fig_404.jpg [Accessed 22 December 2020].
‘Kiss the Girls, Make Them Cry (Dara Birnbaum, 1979),’ 2020, Video Data Bank, video page, viewed 23 June 2020, https://vdb.org/titles/kiss-girls-make-them-cry.
Lavater, J K c. 1780 Essays on Physiognomy, engraving of Lavater’s Silhouette Machine. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Kaspar_Lavater#/media/File:Lavater’s_Apparatus_for_Taking_Silhouettes.--(From_an_ancient_engraving_of_1783).jpg [Accessed 24 December 2020].
‘Marilyn,’ 2020, IMDb, title entry, viewed 23 June 2020, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0057290/.
‘Mass surveillance,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_surveillance
Mattson, M P 2014 Superior pattern processing is the essence of the evolved human brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2014(8): 265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00265
Mehrotra, D 2020 Horror Stories from Inside Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Gizmodo, 28 Jan. 2020. Available at: https://gizmodo.com/horror-stories-from-inside-amazons-mechanical-turk-1840878041 [Accessed 14 July 2020].
‘Movie Lists,’ 2019, YouTube, playlist for the channel Cinefix, viewed 6 January 2019, https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1AXWu-gGX6IcOGt0yaA9Cd_hkt_TwQlC.
‘Movie Phone Super Call,’ 2020, Vimeo, comments section, viewed 15 June 2020, https://vimeo.com/139265123.
Mühling, M, Meister, M, Korfhage, N, Wehling, J, Hörth, A, Ewerth, R & Freisleben, B 2019 Content-based video retrieval in historical collections of the German Broadcasting Archive. International Journal on Digital Libraries 20(2), pp. 167–183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00799-018-0236-z
Muybridge, E 1893 A Couple Waltzing [Phenakistoscope disc], animated. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phenakistoscope_3g07690b.gif [Accessed 22 December 2020].
National Film Archive Catalogue, Part II: Silent Non-Fiction Films, 1895-1934 1960 London: The British Film Institute. Available at https://archive.org/details/nationalfilmarch00nati [Accessed 5 December 2020].
Newman, A 2019 I Found Work on an Amazon Website. I Made 97 Cents an Hour. The New York Times, 15 Nov. 2019. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/11/15/nyregion/amazon-mechanical-turk.html [Accessed 14 July 2020].
Niver, K 1967 ‘Davey Jones’ Locker,’ Bergsten, B (ed.), Motion Pictures from the Library of Congress Paper Print Collection, 1894-1912, Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520334106
‘Oulipo,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 28 June 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oulipo.
Pouyanfar, S, Tian, H, Reyes, MP, Wang, T, Cen, H, Li, Y, & Chen, S 2018 Florida International University - University of Miami TRECVID 2018. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.papers/fiu-um.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Poyet, L 1882, Émile Reynaud’s Projecting Praxinoscope. In: La Nature, revue des sciences, no. 492 (1882), p. 357. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lanature1882_praxinoscope_projection_reynaud.png [Accessed 22 December 2020].
‘Precious Images,’ 2020, Vimeo, search result, viewed 23 June 2020, https://vimeo.com/search?q=precious%20images
‘Queen Sono – User Ratings,’ 2020, IMDb, user ratings page, viewed 8 July 2020, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt9426290/ratings.
Quénot, G & Awad, G 2018 TRECVID 2018 Ad-hoc Video Search Task. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.slides/tv18.avs.slides.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
‘Raphael Montañez Ortíz, Newsreel, 1958,’ 2020, Smithsonian American Art Museum object record, viewed 24 June 2020, https://americanart.si.edu/artwork/newsreel-80356.
Rather, D 2018, Facebook update, 2 April, viewed 2 April 2018, https://www.facebook.com/24085780715/posts/lets-be-clear-news-anchors-looking-into-camera-and-reading-a-script-handed-down-/10160239588295716/.
Rodler, H 1531 A Fine, Useful Booklet on the Art of Measuring, 1531. Available at https://archive.org/stream/eynschnntzlichbc00rodl#page/n95/mode/2up [Accessed 24 December 2020].
Rossetto, L, Giangreco, I, Schuldt, H, Dupont, S, Seddati, O, Sezgin, M, & Sahillioğlu, Y 2015 IMOTION—a content-based video retrieval engine. Paper presented at International Conference on Multimedia Modeling, Springer, Cham, January 2015. Available at: http://edoc.unibas.ch/dok/A6329133 [Accessed 24 December 2020]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14442-9_24
‘Satellite navigation device,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_navigation_device.
Semuels, A 2018 The Internet is Enabling a New Kind of Poorly-Paid Hell. The Atlantic, 23 Jan. 2018. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2018/01/amazon-mechanical-turk/551192/ [Accessed 14 July 2020].
‘Slavko Vorkapich,’ 2020, IMDb, name entry, viewed 14 July 2020, https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0903465/.
Soboroff, I, Butt, A, Curtis, K, Ellis, A, Dimmick, D, Fiscus, J, Lee, Y, Godil, A, Joy, D, & Delgado, A 2018 TREC Video Retrieval Evaluation (TRECVID) Introduction. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv.pubs.18.org.html [Accessed 23 December 2020].
Standage, T 2018, Twitter update, 10 September, viewed 13 December 2020, https://twitter.com/tomstandage/status/1039230780462047232 (1784 illustration of Wolfgang von Kempelen’s Mechanical Turk).
‘Supercut.org,’ 2020, Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine, search result, viewed 15 June 2020, https://web.archive.org/web/*/supercut.org.
‘The African Queen – User Ratings,’ 2020, IMDb, user ratings page, viewed 8 July 2020, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0043265/ratings.
Thomanek, R, Roschke, C, Platte, B, Rolletschke, T, Heinzig, M, Vodel, M, Zimmer, F, & Ritter, M 2018 University of Applied Sciences Mittweida and Chemnitz University of Technology at TRECVID 2018. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.papers/hsmw_tuc.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].
‘Toll road,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toll_road.
‘Traffic enforcement camera,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traffic_enforcement_camera.
‘Transponder,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transponder.
Tribe, K 2002 Untitled (Potential Terrorist), Detail: casting notice, viewed 5 December 2020, http://www.kerrytribe.com/project/untitled-potential-terrorist/.
‘truth, knowledge, data, information,’ 2020, Google Books Ngram Viewer, search result, viewed on 8 July 2020. Available at https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=truth%2Cknowledge%2Cdata%2Cinformation&year_start=1800&year_end=2000&corpus=26&smoothing=3.
Varley, C 1830 Artist Sketching with a Wollaston Camera Lucida, In: Dollond, G The Camera Lucida, London. Available at http://vision.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/vision_coll/imageCollection/vision_images/zogiVisionDetails?filename=Dollond_title_cl_drawer [Accessed 24 December 2020].
‘Vehicle registration plate,’ 2020, Wikipedia, wiki article, viewed 12 July 2020, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_registration_plate.
‘WatchMojo.com,’ 2019, YouTube, channel page, viewed 6 January 2019, https://www.youtube.com/user/WatchMojo/videos.
‘World of Signs,’ 2020, YouTube, playlist for the channel World of Signs, viewed 30 May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDeOH4NU6Cm4FRkx_0rHAw18RuVwSPj-h [Accessed 30 May 2020].
Yu, S, Jiang, L, Xu, Z, Yang, Y, Hauptmann, A 2015 Content-based video search over 1 million videos with 1 core in 1 second, paper presented at the 5th ACM on International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval, June 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2671188.2749398
Zhenying, H, Uehara, K, & Shirahama, K 2018 Kobe University and Kindai University at TRECVID 2018 AVS Task. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Available at: https://www-nlpir.nist.gov/projects/tvpubs/tv18.posters/kobe_kindai.pdf [Accessed 23 December 2020].